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Essays
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The released thematic essays from the AP European History Exam

Renaissance to Reformation(1400-1517)
*Explain how advances in learning and technology influenced fifteenth and sixteenth century European exploration and trade. (2003, Part B, Ques.4)
* Describe and analyze the differences in the ways in which artists and writers portrayed the individual during the Italian Renaissance and the Romantic era of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. (2002, Form B, Part C, Ques. 5)
* Analyze the influence of humanism on the visual arts on the Italian Renaissance. Use at least THREE specific works to support your analysis. (2004, Part C, Ques.5)
*Using examples from at least two different states, analyze the key features of the ‚Äúnew monarchies‚ÄĚ and the factors responsible for their rise in the period 1450-1550. (2005, Part B, Ques.3)
*Contrast the ways in which the painting shown express the artisitic and intellectual concerns of the eras in which the works were created. (School of Athens-Rapheal, 1509-1511, and Les Demoiselles d’Avignon-Picasso, 1907) (2004, Form B, Part B, Ques.4)
*To what extent and in and in what ways did women participate in the Renaissance? (2003, Form B, Part B, Ques.3)
* Compare and contrast the religious policies of TWO of the following:
         Elizabeth I of England(1533-1603)
         Catherine de Medicis of France(1519-1589)
         Isabella I of Spain(1451-1504)
         (2002, Part B, Ques. 2)
* Analyze at least TWO factors that account for the rise and TWO factors that explain the decline of witchcraft persecution and trials in Europe in the period from 1580-1750.
(2002, Part B, Ques. 3)
*How and to what extent did the methods and ideals of the Renaissance humanism contribute to the Protestant Reformation? (2006, Form B, Part C, Ques.5)
*Compare and contrast the relationship between the artist and society in the Renaissance/Reformation period to the relationship between the artist and society in the
late nineteenth century. (2006, Part B, Ques.2)

-Compare and Contrast Italian and Northern Renaissance
- Analyze Individualism, Secularism and Rationalism
-Evolution of Commerce- Development and Impact of money into European Society- DaMedici’s- (Wool, Silk and Dyes)
- Renaissance Popes and their effect on the Renaissance
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Reformation to Peace of Westphalia(1517-1648)
* Discuss the political and social consequences of the Protestant Reformation in the first half of the sixteenth century. (2001, Part B, Ques. 4)
* To what extent did political authorities influence the course of the Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century? (2002, Form B, Part B, Ques. 2)
*Compare and contrast the ways that seventeenth-century absolute monarchs and twentieth-century dictators gained and maintained their power. (2004, Form B, Part C, Ques.6)
*Account for the growth and decline of European witch hunts in the period 1500 to 1650. (2005, Form B, Part B, Ques.2)
*Analyze the aims, methods, and degree of success of the Catholic Reformation (Counter-Reformation) in the sixteenth century. (2006, Part B, Ques.3)
*Analyze the effects of the Columbian exchange (the interchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old World and the New World) on the population and economy of Europe in the period 1550-1700. (2006, Part B, Ques.4)
*Explain the reasons for the rise of the Netherlands as a leading commercial power in the period 1550-1650. (2004, Form B, Part C, Ques.7)
*Compare and contrast the motives and actions of Martin Luther in the German states and King Henry VIII in England in bringing about religious change during the Reformation. (2005, Part B, Ques.4)
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Peace of Westphalia to Enlightenment/Age of Reason (1648-1776)
*Analyze the economic, technological, and institutional factors responsible for Western Europe’s domination of world trade form 1650-1800. (2005, Part C, Ques.7)
*Assess the impact of the Scientific Revolution on religion and philosophy in the period 1550-1750. (2004, Part C, Ques.6)
* Describe and analyze how overseas expansion by European states affected global trade and international relations from 1600-1715. (2001, Part B, Ques. 3)
*Compare and contrast the relationship between artists and society in the Baroque era (1600-1750) ~and in the twentieth century. Illustrate your essay with references to at least TWO examples for each period. (2003, Form B, Part B, Ques.2)* Compare and contrast two theories of government introduced in the period from 1640-1780. (2002, Form B, Part C, Ques. 6)
* In what ways and to what extent did absolutism affect the power and status of the European nobility in the period 1650-1750? Use examples from at least TWO countries. (2002, Part C, Ques. 5)
*How and to what extent did the commercial Revolution transform the European economy and diplomatic balance of power in the period from 1650-1763? (2006, Form B, Part B, Ques.2)
*Compare and contrast the social and economic roles of the state in seventeenth-and eighteenth-century Europe (before 1789) to the social and economic roles of the state in Europe after the Second World War. (2006, Part C, Ques.5)
* Both Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683) and Adam Smith (1723-1790) sought to increase the wealth of their respective countries. How did their recommendations differ? (2002, Form B, Part C, Ques. 7)
*Louis XIV(1638-1715) declared his goal was ‚Äúone king, one law, one faith.‚ÄĚ (2003, Part B, Ques. 3)
*Analyze how and why western European attitudes toward children and child-rearing changed in the period from 1750-1900. (2001, Part B, Ques. 2)
*Compare and contrast the goals and major policies of Peter the Great of Russia (ruled 1682-1725) with those of Frederick the Great of Prussia (r. 1740-1786). (2002, Form B, Part B, Ques. 3)
*Identify features of the eighteenth-century Agricultural Revolution and analyze its social and economic consequences. (2003, Part B, Ques.2)
*Analyze three examples of the relationship between Romanticism and nationalism before 1850. (2003, Part B, Ques.6)
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*Explain why Europe saw no lasting peace in the period between the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 and the Peace of Paris in 1763. (2003, Form B, Part B, Ques.6)
*To what extent did Romanticism challenge Enlightenment views of human beings and the natural world? (2004, Form B, Part B, Ques.3)
*Analyze how economic and social developments affected women in England in the period from 1700-1850. (2005, Part B, Ques.2)
*Describe and analyze the influence of the Enlightenment on both elite culture and popular culture in the eighteenth century. (2003, Part B, Ques.4)
*Compare and contrast Enlightenment and Romantic views of the relationship between God and the individual. (2005, Form B, Part B, Ques.3)
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French Revolution/Napoleonic Era/Bourbons(1789-1815)

*Discuss the economic policies and institutions that characterized mercantilist systems from 1600-1800. (2005, Form B, Part C, Ques.5)
*Analyze the shifts in the European balance of power in the period between 1763 and 1848. (2004, Form B, Part B, Ques.2)
*Analyze the intellectual foundations of religious toleration in eighteenth-century Europe. (2006, Form B, Part C, Ques.6)
*Discuss the impact of industrialization and urbanization on working-class families from 1750-1900. (2005, Form B, Part B, Ques.4)
*How and to what extent did Enlightenment ideas about religion and society shape the policies of the French Revolution in the period 1789-1799? (2003, Part B, Ques.7)
* Compare and contrast the extent to which the French Revolution (1789-1799) and the Russian Revolution (1917-1924) changed the status of women. (2004, Part B, Ques.2)
*Compare and Contrast the French Jacobins’ use of state power to achieve revolutionary goals during the Terror(1793-1794) with Stalin’s use of state power to achieve revolutionary goals in the Soviet Union during the period 1928 to 1939. (2001, Part C, Ques. 7)
*Compare and contrast political liberalism with political conservatism in the first half of the nineteenth century in Europe. (2003, Form B, Part B, Ques.5)
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Nationalism/Colonialism/Congress of Vienna/Revolutions/Class struggles (1815-1848)
* Compare and contrast the foreign policy goals and achievements of Metternich (1815-1848) and Bismarck (1862-1890). (2002, Part C, Ques. 7)
*Discuss how the two structures shown above (The arch of Triumph, Paris, 1806-1863 and the Crystal Palace, London, 1850-1851) reflect the societies and cultures that produced them. (2006, Form B, Part C, Ques.7)
*In the period 1815-1900, political liberalization progressed much further in western Europe than in Russia. Analyze the social and economic reasons for the difference. (2006, Part C, Ques.6)
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Age of Imperialism and Empires/German Unification (1860-1900)
*Contrast the impact of nationalism in Germany and the Austrian Empire from 1848-1914. (2004, Part C, Ques.7)
*Describe and analyze responses to industrialization by the working class between 1850 and 1914. (2003, Form B, Part B, Ques.7)
*Historians speak of the rise of mass politics in the period from 1880-1914. Define this phenomenon and analyze its effects on European politics in this period. (2005, Part C, Ques.5)
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WWI/Beginning of Modern Thought(1900-1918)
*Analyze anti-Semitism in Europe from the Dreyfus affair in the 1890s to 1939. (2006, Form B, Part B, Ques.4)
*Compare and contrast the victorious Allied Powers treatment of Germany after the First World War with their treatment of Germany after the Second World War. Analyze the reasons for the similarities and differences. (2005, Form B, Part C, Ques.6)
*How did new theories in physics and psychology in the period from 1900-1939 challenge existing ideas about the individual and society? (2001, Part C, Ques. 5)
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The Rise of Dictators and WWII/Post WWII(1919-1945)
* Analyze the impact of the First World War on European Culture and society in the interwar period (1919-1939). (2002, Part B, Ques. 4)
*Analyze the participation of European women in the economy and in politics from 1914-1939. Use examples from at least TWO countries. (2004, Form B, Part C, Ques.5)
*Assess the extent to which the economic and political ideals of Karl Mark were realized in post revolutionary Russia in the period from 1917-1939. (2005, Part C, Ques.6)
*~ Compare and Contrast the French Jacobins’ use of state power to achieve revolutionary goals during the Terror(1793-1794) with Stalin’s use of state power to achieve revolutionary goals in the Soviet Union during the period 1928 to 1939. (2001, Part C, Ques. 7)
*Analyze the ways in which technology and mass culture contributed to the success of dictators in the 1920s and the 1930s. (2004, Part B, Ques.3)
*Considering the period 1933-1945, analyze the economic, diplomatic, and military reasons for Germany’s defeat in the Second World War. (2006, Part C, Ques.7)
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Cold War/Post WWII Europe(1945-1989)
* Between 1945 and 1970, virtually all-European colonies achieved independence. Discuss the changes within Europe that contributed to this development. (2002, Form B, Part B, Ques. 4)
* Compare and contrast the political and economic effects of the Cold War (1945-1991) on Western Europe with the effects on Eastern Europe. (2001, Part C, Ques. 6)
* Many historians have suggested that since 1945, nationalism has been on the decline in Europe. Using both political and economic examples from the period 1945-2000, evaluate the validity of this interpretation. (2002, Part C, Ques. 6)
*Analyze the factors working for and against European unity from 1945-2001. (2004, Part B, Ques.4)
*Describe and analyze economic policies in Eastern and Western Europe after 1945. (2006, Form B, Part B, Ques.3)
*Analyze the factors responsible for decolonization since the Second World War. (2005, Form B, Part C, Ques.7)
*Analyze three reasons for the end of Soviet domination over Eastern Europe. (2003, Part C, Ques.5)












Last Modified: Jul 30, 2008
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